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# Scales

Scales. Here is the definition I wrote in my book: "A scale is a system of musical notes that melodically ascend and descend using a specific pattern (systematically).

Most of these scales use formulas to help describe them and show you how to play them. A Formula usually consists of whole steps and half steps."

"The most common scale is ‘The Major Scale’.

Most of classical music theory is based off of this scale it is also easier to portray a variety of the things you would write in a composition.

The easiest example of a major scale would be a C major scale because it is all of the white notes on a piano.

Starting from C you ascend only using the white notes and end on the octave C. For Example:

C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C"

The formula for the major scale is as follows:

W means whole step and h means half step.

1, W, W, h, W, W, W, h

(By saying 1 it won’t confuse you or others as counting the first note as a Whole Note. 1 is any note you chose to start on)

When I think of the notes I think of 12 notes. Technically there are 21 notes. But I don't count the enharmonic twice. So there are 12. A, Bb, B, C, C#, D, Eb, E, F, F#, G, and Ab.

That means each of these notes gets their own scale. That use this formula. Let me show you step by step.

First rule of making a scale is that you have to go alphabetically in sequence no matter what note you start on.

So let us start on G:

G is our 1, now a whole step from G is A, a whole step from A is B, a half step from B is C, a whole step from C is D, a whole step from D is E, a whole step from E is F# (Not Gb because alphabetically F comes after E), and finally a half step from F# is G. The scale always starts and ends on the same note.

We will not be going over any other types of scales even though there are many. Since this is only basic music theory!

So each note gets its own scale. Technically 21 scales. But I will make it easy for you and only go off of the 12 notes I chose. I will do them in the order I put as well!

A,B,C#,D,E,F#,G#,A

Bb,C,D,Eb,F,G,A,Bb

B,C#,D#,E,F#,G#,A#,B

C,D,E,F,G,A,B,C

C#,D#,E#,F#,G#,A#,B#,C#

D,E,F#,G,A,B,C#,D

Eb,F,G,Ab,Bb,C,D,Eb

E,F#,G#,A,B,C#,D#,E

F,G,A,Bb,C,D,E,F

F#,G#,A#,B,C#,D#,E#,F#

G,A,B,C,D,E,F#,G

Ab,Bb,C,Db,Eb,F,G,Ab

TASK: I want each of you to write these two scales out: Db & Gb

•  Db, Eb, F, Gb, Ab, Bb, C, Db

Gb, Ab, Bb, Cb, Db, Eb, F, Gb

think this is correct, wasnt to sure of the Cb or should I have put B?

• Here is a sound clip playing these scales in this order with rests inbetween the scales so you can hear when the next one starts and stops. I will play the scale ascending, rest and then descned then rest for a longer amount of time before going to the next:

A,B,C#,D,E,F#,G#,A

Bb,C,D,Eb,F,G,A,Bb

B,C#,D#,E,F#,G#,A#,B

C,D,E,F,G,A,B,C

C#,D#,E#,F#,G#,A#,B#,C#

D,E,F#,G,A,B,C#,D

Eb,F,G,Ab,Bb,C,D,Eb

E,F#,G#,A,B,C#,D#,E

F,G,A,Bb,C,D,E,F

F#,G#,A#,B,C#,D#,E#,F#

G,A,B,C,D,E,F#,G

Ab,Bb,C,Db,Eb,F,G,Ab

• Perfect, nice job!

• Db (5 flats):  Db, Eb, F, Gb, Ab, Bb, C, Db

Gb (6 flats):  Gb, Ab, Bb, Cb, Db, Eb, F, Gb