Question 1: I believe we could create the following subsets from the words Bonita has provided:
Intrinsic Motivation: Interest, curiosity, enthusiasm, effort (the perfectionist vs the coaster), persistence - of the individual student
Extrinsic Motivation: inspiration, encouragement, enthusiasm of the teacher; goal/gain for student; rapport of peers and teacher; classroom environment (peers/teacher/room)
Question 2: Which of these words are synonymous with engagement (if any)?
I believe all of the words of the list can be linked engagement in varying ways and contexts. I am realising that student engagement, as Bonita has pointed out, is huge and made up of many factors. I feel a mindmap coming......!!
7. Did you add any words? Which one (s) and why?
Classroom Environment: Where a synergy of sorts is created between teacher and students as a whole – everyone 'works' or 'jells'. This is created by developing the rapport, trust, participation and co-operation of each individual in the room. We could also look at the physical environment – climate, walls (informative and motivational posters, individual work creating an ownership of space), lighting, desk layouts).
Task Choices (Learning Styles): Where students have the choice of tasks, which cater for individual learning styles (listening, kinaesthetic, viewing, individual, group etc) , that lead to the same goal/aim. If the student is given the choice to do a task that she/he feels comfortable and enjoys doing this may lead to engagement. This could expand to subject/topic matter (where applicable) as in Research Projects where students can explore an area of interest. Acknowledging quickly, as teachers, we would want students to challenge themselves as well, to develop the areas of learning styles they are not so good at.
Self-efficacy If a student has high self efficacy or belief in his/her abilities to learn she/he will be more likely to be engaged. Bandura states that "people with high assurance in their capabilities approach difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided." (http://des.emory.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html)