Final exam (sorry slightly more than 550 words)
The Musical Alphabet.
The musical alphabet is a section of notes that are read in music, they are ABCDEFG, which repeats itself each set of A-G are called octaves. Every musical instrument including the voice uses these notes. Each instrument will be set at a certain pitch, and this will determine how many octaves can be achieved from really low bass notes to really high soprano / piccolo.
How to read treble clef & Bass clef.
The clef signs bass and treble clef determine where on the staff the notes will sit. The staff consists of 5 lines. The difference between how notes are laid out on the staff would be as follows. If we take the notes A,B,C, on treble clef the note A would be between the 2nd and 3rd line, the note B on the 3rd line, and the note C between the 3rd and forth lines. In bass clef the same notes would be: A in between 1st and 2nd line, B on the 2nd line, and C in the space between 2nd and 3rd line. Effectively each note in bass clef is down 1 rung
What is rhythm?
A rhythm is the beat of music, this can be determined by how many beats in a bar e.g. a march would mainly have 2 beats in a bar, and a waltz would have 3 beats in a bar. Notes and rests in a bar can cause syncopation where the rhythm goes out from the normal beat of the bar. So rests are just as important as the notes for creating a rhythm.
What is a time signature?
Time signatures determine how many beats are in a bar of music. The time signature can be found on the staff next to either the treble or bass clef signs. They look like when you write a fraction down. The first number on the top determines how many beats per measure their will be. The number at the bottom determines the duration of the note for each beat. Here are some examples of time signatures: 4/4 (also known as common time) is 4 beats in a bar over 4 quarter notes. 2/4 would be 2 beats in a bar.
There are 3 types of accidental; the sharp, flat, and natural. Music has key signatures which determine which notes out of the ABCDEFG, are; sharp, flat or natural. Where the key signature determinesthat an F each time it is played will be an F#, and the piece of music requires an F natural, the natural sign is placed at the left hand side of that note. Similar if the key signature states no flats or sharps, the music may determine either are required for a specific note, they will be placed at the left side of the specific note, and be repeated in the bar unless stated by an natural symbol on the next similar note in the bar. E.g. four notes in a bar in the key of C (no flats or sharps).
F, F#.G FNat. The first F would be natural, 2nd F would be sharp, and 3rd F would be natural.
Whole steps, half steps and intervals.
These are the distance between the first note and the next note. A whole step is when going from C-D, because it skipped over (C#&Db). A half step is when
What is a scale? How to construct one.
A scale is a systematic. Specific pattern of musical notes that melodically ascend and descend. Most scales follow a formulated principle and are usually constructed using whole and half steps. Each scale is called something different like the scale of A Minor, scale of D etc. e.g. Scale of C major starts as CDEFGABC going up the scale and the reverse going down the scale CBAGFEDC
The circle of fifths.
Circle of fifths is a circle which you go up the scales by a fifth, so ever fifth note of a scale starts the next part of the scale. This in turn depicts what the key signature will be.
The key signature is set at the left hand side of the music bar next to the time signature and either treble or bass clef symbols. The key signature would show how many sharps, flats or in the case of the key of C naturals. The key signature also helps when writing music for instruments of a different pitch. E.g. an instrument pitch at Bb playing with an instrument playing in Eb, when the Bb part has the key of C, an Eb part would be 1 tone flatter so would have on flat showing in the key signature. Every time the Eb player played a B it would automatically be considered a Bb, unless it had a natural sign at the side of the not which would make it BNat.
What is a chord? How to construct one.
A chord is usually 3 tone played at the same time. The easiest use of a chord is to write every 1st, 3rd, and 5th note from a scale. E.g. notes played together as a chord could be FAC, CEG, BbDF